The problem of environmental pollution has become very serious in recent years all over the world. Today, the air that we inhale is polluted. Our future generations will suffer from the harmful effect of pollution if we do not tackle the problem now. There are different forms of environmental pollution like water pollution, food pollution, air pollution, noise pollution, land pollution etc. No doubt, our progress and development is the result of industrial growth and technological advancement. But, this progress has a negative influence on the environment. Pollution makes the environment unfit for living. It becomes a health hazard. The unbalanced industrial growth is the main cause of air and water pollution. In India, waste from refineries and atomic plants are dumped into the rivers or seas which pose a serious threat to the health of the people living in its surrounding areas or far away. Consequently, freshwater resources are depleting very fast and water-borne diseases are on the rise. Agricultural runoffs in rivers are another major water pollutant as they contain fertilisers and pesticides.
Today, we cut down trees and plants on a large scale. Air purification and generation of oxygen by trees and plants goes down due to the rampant erosion of the green cover. When forests are cut down, we face the problem of soil erosion too. Air pollution is one of the major ecological problems man is facing today. Air pollution is prominent in big cities like Mumbai, Delhi, Ahmedabad, Kolkata etc. where the smoke is emitted from the chimneys of mills and factories, burning agriculture stubble and noxious fumes from automobiles. Thus, air becomes polluted and we are bound to inhale such polluted air. Inhalation of the polluted air gives rise to numerous diseases especially in children and the elderly. Besides, water and air pollution, we also face the problem of noise pollution today. The problem with noise is not only that it is unwanted, but also that it negatively affects human health and well-being. Problems related to noise include tension, hearing loss, sleep loss, high blood pressure, distraction and loss of productivity, loss of concentration etc. which lead to a general reduction in the quality of life. Land pollution is caused due to dumping and disposal of wastes and application of agrochemicals in the soil. Deforestation also leads to land pollution. Cutting of trees means uneven and lesser rain pattern. Overexploitation of soil, overgrazing and cutting of trees lead to soil erosion.
Hence, it is necessary to start tree plantation as a social service and national programme. Deforestation should be totally stopped. Pollution of any type is the greatest threat to our life because it causes many fatal diseases like cholera, tuberculosis, asthma and even cancer. So, pollution control measures must be used. We must take immediate and effective steps to fight pollution. We must reduce vehicular and factory smoke. To trap smoke particles, smoke chambers should be made. Gases should be discharged through exhaust pipes higher in the air. Chemical industries should not be allowed to be set up on the riverbanks. We must stop the dumping of chemical wastes into our rivers, lakes and seas. Plastic and other hazardous waste materials should be subjected to recycling. Noise pollution must be made a punishable offence. We must grow more trees and protect our forests. Pollution is harmful for all and therefore concerted efforts should be made to eliminate all kinds of pollution. The sooner effective steps are taken, the better will be the tomorrow for mankind.